Kepler Kepler’s Second Law of Planetary Motion, Vector Calculus, and Force of Gravity How ‘vector interpretation’ of Kepler’s second law hints at the presence of gravitational force between the Sun and a planet

Newton The Genius of Isaac Newton A Modern Derivation of Newton’s Revolutionary Proof of the Inverse-Square Law

Music In the Celestial Chorus, Earth Sings Alto From Pythagoras to Kepler, mathematicians saw music in the motions of the planets.